What is a computer network?
A computer network is a telecommunication network that allows connecting other computers. These computers are connected with wireless devices such as wifi.
In a communication network, a node is a connection or a point from where data is sent or data is stored. Each node, either it’s an endpoint or distribution point has programmed to identify and forward the transmissions to the other nodes.
The perception of a network of nodes was established with the help of distributing networks and small packets switching. It performs a variety of functions.
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In data communication, nodes network consists of data and communication accessories that fix between Data Terminal Equipments (DTE). These include switches or modems that perform conversions of codes.
Switches: These are the devices that forward and recognize the MAC addresses.
Modems: these devices are used to connect network nodes by wires. It is generally used in telephone lines.
Computer Network Nodes Via the Internet:
In the internet and intranet networks, mostly node networks are the host computers that are recognized by their IP addresses. Few data links devices like Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) which doesn’t consist of host IP addresses or Local Area Network (LAN) nodes rather than internet nodes.
Wide Area Network And Local Area Network:
A wide area network is a computer network that is used in a large area. It consists of two or three local area networks. It can cover a city or state. Whereas the Local Network Area is the computer network used in small distance areas such as in school, office building or at home, etc.
Its nodes perform a specific function. These nodes consist of Media Access Control (MAC) address, to use one of these networks we must need access to their (MAC) address. The node performs their task when the device is connected once Device is Offline nodes will lose their function too.
Telecommunication Network Nodes:
In Telephone, Nodes network may be a public or private telephone exchange that provides network service. In Mobile communication, nodes include a base station controller that supervises two or more base stations.
Cable Television Nodes:
In cable system nodes had taken to the wider ambiance and these are associated with fiber optics cable that is connected to offices or home’s fiber-optic catcher with the provided area. A specific fiber node can serve many homes and offices.
Computer Network Topology:
The arrangement of nodes with the help of switches modems and bridges etc for the connection in a network is referred to as Network topology. The network topology and the location of the source where network runs help to determine the maximum path for each flow. There are two methods for network
- The Physical Topology
- The Logical Topology
The Physical Topology:
The physical topology of a network is the draft of nodes and connections. It consists of wires, fiber optics micro-waves, etc.
Types of Physical topology:
- Bus Topology
- Star Topology
- Ring Topology
- Mesh Topology
- Tree Topology
The Bus Topology
The bus topology network is connected in a series or linear path. This connection is normally found in cable connections in our area.
The Star Topology
The star network topology is the network in which a central node is connected to other nodes. Local Area Network planted on Ethernet switches. These wirings are commonly present in office and home.
The Ring Topology
In the ring network topology, the nodes are connected in coil contour. Few nodes can pass only in one direction. Metro networks based on Synchronous Optical Network Technology (SONET) is the basic example of ring networks straight away.
The Meshed Topology
Meshed is the term referred to as a knot or close. The meshed network topology provides nodes with the close connection s that multiple paths between the points are available. The nodes are called meshed when nodes are directly connected to other nodes. The example of meshed topology is the Internet.
The Tree Topology
As the name is itself telling it is connected in the cluster. The tree topology is connected in star structure. Many Ethernet switches network even data center are connected in the tree topology.
The logical Topology:
The logical topology of a network is the connection between the nodes and the logical connections. A logical connection always runs against the path when information reaches the relevant intermediate point. The logical topology runs through channels or tunnels.
The logical Topology means the connectivity of a network using IP and Ethernet. These two are commonly in use nowadays. These are knotted connections because everyone can connect to any other until and unless someone breaks or blocks the unsought connections.
The transference media that is used to link devices to form a computer include consist of cables, optical fibers, microwave. Ethernet transfers data with both copper and fiber cables. Wireless LAN pattern use microwaves, others use infrared signals as a communication medium. Power line communication uses a building’s power cabling to transfer data.
Coaxial cable: It is widely used in local area networks (LAN) such as office building schools and homes. Its transmission speed dimensions from 200 million bits to more than 500 million bits per second.
Twisted Pair Cabling: These cables are used in Ethernet. It is the pair of copper wires that transmit voice and data. Its speed ranges from 2 million bits to more than 10 million bits per second.
Optical Fibre: It is a glass fiber. It represents data in the form of light and lasers. Optical fibers are used for long flow and carry high data with it. Ther are two types of optical fibers, Single-mode optical fiber (SMOF) and multiple mode optical fibers (MMOF). SMOF can run hundreds of kilometers carrying high data and MMOF can run dozens of hundred carrying high data. Multiple optical is much cheaper because at a low rate it can carry high data.
Terrestrial Microwave: These are earth-based transmitters that receive or transfer signals to the satellite. Relay stations are spaced about 40 miles apart.
Cellular Networks: These networks are used in radio communication technologies. It is a lowe power receiver.
Free space optical communication: It uses visible or invisible light rays for communications. Mostly, line of sight propagation is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices.
Networks are typically managed by the organizations that own them. Private company networks use a set of intranets and extranets. They may also provide network access to the Internet, which has no owner and allow essentially unlimited global connectivity.
An intranet is a set of networks that are under the control of a single administrative entity. The intranet uses the IP protocol and IP based tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications. The administrative entity limits the use of the intranet to its authorized users. Most commonly, an intranet is the internal LAN of an organization. A large intranet typically has at least one web server to provide users with organizational information.
An extranet is a network that is also under the administrative control of a single organization but supports a limited connection to a specific external network. For example, an organization may provide access to some condition of its intranet to share data with its business partners or customers. These entities are not essentially trusted from security checkpoints. Network connection to an extranet is common but not every time.
The Internet is the largest example of an internetwork. It is a global system of interconnected government, academic, public, and private computer networks. It is based on the networking technologies of the Internet Protocol. It is the replacement of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network developed by DARPA of the United States Department of Defense. The Internet utilizes copper communications and the optical networking backbone to enable the World Wide Web (WWW) the Internet of things video transfer and a broad range of information services.
Participants in the Internet use different methods of several documented, and usually standardized, protocols compatible with the Internet Protocol Suite and an addressing system (IP addresses) administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and address registries. Service providers and large enterprises exchange information about the reachability of their address spaces through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), forming a redundant worldwide mesh of transmission paths.
It is a source that is a superimposed network that is typically running on the internet and It is only accessible through specially designed software.
Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks that consist of circuit-switched networks and packet-switched networks.
In packet-switched networks, routing directs packet forwarding through intermediate nodes.
Routing is generally contradicted with bridging in its acceptance that network addresses are analytical and that similar addresses involved proximity within the network. Structured addresses allow a single routing table entry to represent the route to a group of devices. In large networks, structured addressing (routing, in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured addressing (bridging). Routing has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet. Bridging is still widely used in localized environments.
Network services are the functions that are introduced by servers on a computer network to provide some performance for users of the network or to help the network itself to operate.
The World Wide Web, E-mail printing and network file sharing are examples of well-known network services.
Services usually rely on a service protocol that characterizes the structure and arrangement of messages that are between the clients and the customer service representatives of that network.
Bandwidth in bit per second refers to consumed bandwidth which is analogous to achieving an excellent output that is the average rate of successful data transfer through a communication route. The throughput is affected by technologies including shaping, bandwidth management, bandwidth throttling, bandwidth cap, bandwidth allocation. A bit stream’s bandwidth is proportional to the average devour signal bandwidth in hertz during a studied time interval.
Any data which is entering across need a period to reach. Any obstruction or delay in sending or receiving of data would create a great impact.
Quality of service:
Leaning on the coronation requirement, many network attainment is usually calculated by the quality of services which is present in telecommunication types of equipment. The specification that alters this comprises of throughput, bit error rate, and latency.
Circuit-switched networks: In circuit-switched networks, network performance is synonymous with the grade of service. The number of rejected calls is a measure of how a satisfactory network is operating under high data load.
ATM: In an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network performance can be measured by connection time, line of rate, patterns, adjustments, quality of output and quality of service.
There are a variety of methods that are used to measure the quality of a network because every network has its own unique and different patterns and nature. We can say performance can be form rather than measuring it.
It exists when some link faces greater obstruction due to heavy load, its results in the packet loss, delaying of output, loss of data or blocking of other connections. Sometimes the network fails to work because of the load which should not induce the network and it causes a reduction in the network.
Network obligations that are used for combative transmissions to fix packet loss and to run the system in network congestion where it carries the load. Even though initially load is reduced but it does not reach the normal level where convinced congestion should exist. The adjusted state with a low output is called congestive collapse.
Computer Network resilience:
Network resilience is the quality that can maintain an average level to accept tasks regarding the network.