C Language- Learn Everything about C language here!

c language
c language

C is a general-purpose programming language that is extremely popular, simple and flexible. It is a machine-independent, a structured programming language that is used extensively in various applications. C was the basics language to write everything from operating systems to complex programs like the Oracle database, Git, Python interpreter and more.

‘C’ is a god’s programming language and a base for the programming. If you know ‘C,’ you can easily grasp the knowledge of the other programming languages that uses the concept of ‘C’. It is essential to have a background in computer memory mechanisms because it is an important aspect when dealing with the C programming language. It’s a general-purpose programming language used for a wide range of applications from Operating systems like Windows and iOS to software that is used for creating 3D movies.

Another feature of ‘C’ programming is that it can extend itself. A ‘C’ program contains various functions that are part of a library. We can add our features and functions to the library. We can access and use these functions anytime we want in our program. This feature makes it simple while working with complex programming.

Its’ is a program that is divided into various modules. Each module can be written separately and together it forms a single ‘C’ program. This structure makes it easy for testing, maintaining and debugging processes. ‘C’ contains 32 keywords, various data types and a set of powerful built-in functions that make programming very efficient. Various compilers are available in the market that can be used for executing programs written in this language.

It is a highly portable language which means programs written in ‘C’ language can run on other machines. This feature is essential if we wish to use or execute the code on another computer. Learning ‘C’ as the main language will play an important role while studying other programming languages. It shares the same concepts such as data types, operators, control statements and many more. ‘C’ can be used widely in various applications. It is a simple language and provides faster execution.

C programming is highly efficient. That’s the main reason why it’s very popular despite being more than 40 years old. If you know C programming, you will not just understand how your program works, but will also be able to create a mental picture of how a computer works.

History of C Language

In 1972, a great computer scientist Dennis Ritchie created a new programming language called ‘C’ at the Bell Laboratories. It was created from ‘ALGOL’, ‘BCPL’ and ‘B’ programming languages. The base or father of programming languages is ‘ALGOL.’ It was first introduced in 1960. ‘ALGOL’ was used on a large basis in European countries. ‘ALGOL’ introduced the concept of structured programming to the developer community.

In 1967, a new computer programming language was announced called ‘BCPL’ which stands for Basic Combined Programming Language. BCPL was designed and developed by Martin Richards, especially for writing system software. This was the era of programming languages.

Just after three years, in 1970 a new programming language called ‘B’ was introduced by Ken Thompson that contained multiple features of ‘BCPL.’ This programming language was created using the UNIX operating system at AT&T and Bell Laboratories. Both the ‘BCPL’ and ‘B’ were system programming languages.

 ‘C’ is a powerful programming language that is strongly associated with the UNIX operating system. Even most of the UNIX operating system is coded in ‘C’. Initially ‘C’ programming was limited to the UNIX operating system, but as it started spreading around the world, it became commercial, and many compilers were released for cross-platform systems, and most of the compilers will provide the features required to execute both ‘C’ and ‘C++’ programs.

More on its history here.

C Language Functions

In C, a large program can be divided into the basic building blocks known as a function. The function contains the set of programming statements enclosed by {}. A function can be called multiple times to provide reusability and modularity to the C program. In other words, we can say that the collection of functions creates a program. The function is also known as procedure or subroutine in other programming languages.

Advantage of functions in C Language

Advantages of C functions are as follows

  • By using functions, we can avoid rewriting the same logic/code again and again in a program.
  • We can call C functions any number of times in a program and from any place in a program.
  • We can track a large C program easily when it is divided into multiple functions.
  • Reusability is the main achievement of C functions.
  • Function calling is always overhead in a C program.

Function Aspects:

There are three aspects of a C function

  • Function declaration
  • Function call
  • Function definition

Function declaration

A function must be declared globally during a C program to inform the compiler about the function name, function parameters, and return type.

Function call

The function is often called from anywhere within the program. The parameter list must not differ in function calling and performance declaration. The programmer must pass the same number of functions as it is declared in the function declaration.

Function definition

It contains the actual statements which are to be executed and the most important aspect to which the control comes when the function is called. Here, we must notice that just one value is often returned from the function.

Types of Function in C Language

There are two types of functions in C language:

  • Library Functions
  • User defined functions

Library Functions

These are the functions which are declared in the C header files such as scanf(), printf(), gets(), puts(), ceil(), floor() etc.

User-defined functions

These are the functions that are created by the C programmer so that he/she can use it many times. It reduces the complexity of an enormous program and optimizes the code.

Return Value

The C function may or might not return a worth from the function. If you do not need to return any value from the function, use void for the return type. Example of C function that does not return any value from the function.

Function without return value

void hello(){
  printf("hello c");
}

Function with return value in C Language

int get() {
    return 10;
}

Different aspects of calling a function

A function may or might not accept any argument. It may or may not return any value. Based on these facts, there are four different aspects of function calls.

  • Function without arguments and without a return value.
  • Function without arguments and with the return value.
  • Function with arguments and without a return value.
  • Function with arguments and with the return value.

Function without argument and return value

Example 1

#include<stdio.h>  
void printName();  
void main ()  
{  
    printf("Hello ");  
    printName();  
}  
void printName()  
{  
    printf("Javatpoint");  
}

Example 2

#include<stdio.h>  
void sum();  
void main()  
{  
    printf("\nGoing to calculate the sum of two numbers:");  
    sum();  
}  
void sum()  
{  
    int a,b;   
    printf("\nEnter two numbers");  
    scanf("%d %d",&a,&b);   
    printf("The sum is %d",a+b);  
}  

Function without argument and with return value

Example 1

#include<stdio.h>  
int sum();  
void main()  
{  
    int result;   
    printf("\nGoing to calculate the sum of two numbers:");  
    result = sum();  
    printf("%d",result);  
}  
int sum()  
{  
    int a,b;   
    printf("\nEnter two numbers");  
    scanf("%d %d",&a,&b);  
    return a+b;   
}  

Example 2: C Program to calculate the area of the square

#include<stdio.h>  
int sum();  
void main()  
{  
    printf("Going to calculate the area of the square\n");  
    float area = square();  
    printf("The area of the square: %f\n",area);  
}  
int square()  
{  
    float side;  
    printf("Enter the length of the side in meters: ");  
    scanf("%f",&side);  
    return side * side;  
}  

C Language Function with argument and without return value

Example 1

#include<stdio.h>  
void sum(int, int);  
void main()  
{  
    int a,b,result;   
    printf("\nGoing to calculate the sum of two numbers:");  
    printf("\nEnter two numbers:");  
    scanf("%d %d",&a,&b);  
    sum(a,b);  
}  
void sum(int a, int b)  
{  
    printf("\nThe sum is %d",a+b);      
}  

C program to calculate the average of five numbers

#include<stdio.h>  
void average(int, int, int, int, int);  
void main()  
{  
    int a,b,c,d,e;   
    printf("\nGoing to calculate the average of five numbers:");  
    printf("\nEnter five numbers:");  
    scanf("%d %d %d %d %d",&a,&b,&c,&d,&e);  
    average(a,b,c,d,e);  
}  
void average(int a, int b, int c, int d, int e)  
{  
    float avg;   
    avg = (a+b+c+d+e)/5;   
    printf("The average of given five numbers : %f",avg);  
}  

Function with argument and with the return value

Example 1

#include<stdio.h>  
int sum(int, int);  
void main()  
{  
    int a,b,result;   
    printf("\nGoing to calculate the sum of two numbers:");  
    printf("\nEnter two numbers:");  
    scanf("%d %d",&a,&b);  
    result = sum(a,b);  
    printf("\nThe sum is : %d",result);  
}  
int sum(int a, int b)  
{  
    return a+b;  
}  

C Program to check whether a number is even or odd

#include<stdio.h>  
bool even_odd(int);  
void main()  
{  
 int n,flag=0;  
 printf("\nGoing to check whether a number is even or odd");  
 printf("\nEnter the number: ");  
 scanf("%d",&n);  
 flag = even_odd(n);  
 if(flag) {
   printf("\nNumber is even.");
 } else {
   printf("\nEnter the odd.");  
 }
}
bool even_odd(int num) {
 return num % 2 == 0;
}

C Language is the mother language

It is taken into account because the base for other programming languages, that’s why it’s referred to as mother language.

It can be defined in the following ways:

  • Mother language
  • System programming language
  • Procedure-oriented programming language
  • Structured programming language
  • Mid-level programming language

C as a mother language

C language is taken into account because the mother language of all the fashionable programming languages because most of the compilers, JVMs, Kernels, etc. are written in C language, and most of the programming languages follow C syntax, for instance, C++, Java, C#, etc. It provides the core concepts just like the array, strings, functions, file handling, etc. that are getting used in many languages like C++, Java, C#, etc.

C as a system programming language

A system programming language is employed to make system software. C language may be a system programming language because it is often wont to do low-level programming (for example driver and kernel). It is generally wont to create hardware devices, OS, drivers, kernels, etc. For example, Linux kernel is written in C language. It cannot be used for internet programming like Java, .Net, PHP, etc.

What about C as a procedural language

A procedure is understood as a function, method, routine, subroutine, etc. A procedural language specifies a series of steps for the program to unravel the matter. A procedural language breaks the program into functions, data structures, etc. C language is a procedural language. In C language, variables and performance prototypes must be declared before getting used.

C as a structured programming language:

A structured programming language may be a subset of the procedural language. Structure means to interrupt a program into parts or blocks in order that it’s going to be easy to know.

In the C language, we break the program into parts using functions. It makes the program easier to know and modify.

C as a mid-level programming language:

C is taken into account as a middle-level language because it supports the feature of both low-level and high-level languages. C language program is converted into assembly code; it supports pointer arithmetic (low-level), but its machine-independent (a feature of high-level).

A Low-level language is restricted to at least one machine, i.e., machine-dependent. It is machine-dependent, fast to run. But it is not easy to understand. An application-oriented language isn’t specific to at least one machine, i.e., machine-independent. It is easy to understand.

You can also check basic c programming as well.

Imad

I am a Software Engineer with ample experience in making games, websites, mobile apps and augmented reality solutions.

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